RACI Diagram / RACI Matrix – A Complete Definition
By Steven Bonacorsi
What is a RACI?
- At its most basic it is a way to examine a process step, task, activity, effort, decision or inspection to determine who is Accountable, Responsible, Informed or Consulted.
- Sometimes RACI (ray-see) is know as RASCI (rah-ski) where the additional S stands for Support
- RACI can be used to determine fundamental issues with a process where the wrong people are involved and/or no one is accountable
- RACI Matrix – Tool used to perform RACI Analysis
- Encourages teamwork by clarifying roles and responsibilities
- Eliminate duplication of effort
- Reduce misunderstanding
- Improve communication – make sure people are not ‘left out’
- Determines ownership
- Helps clarify activities and tasks in a process
- Reduces bad decisions by ensuring the correct people are involved
- Clarify hand-offs and boundaries
- Improve cross-functional view for all employees
- “Too many cooks in the kitchen” – everyone thinks they are responsible and accountable resulting in duplication of effort and in-fighting
- No one is responsible – Some steps are not ‘owned’
- Some people believe that need to be consulted when they just really need to be told after the fact (informed)hand
- Some people need to be consulted for the process to move forward but they are not
- Poor communication, poor process definition and poor hand-offs
What does RACI stand for?
- R = Responsible – The person who performs the action/task.
- A = Accountable – The person who is held accountable that the action/task is completed.
- C = Consulted – The person(s) who is consulted before performing the action/task.
- I = Informed – The person(s) who is informed after performing the action/task.
- Individual/s who perform a task/activity; the doer, responsible for action/implementation.
- The degree of responsibility is defined by the Accountable person.
- Responsibility can be shared.
- While Accountability can NOT be delegated, Responsibility can be delegated.
- The individual who has ultimate accountability and authority.
- There is only one accountable (A) to each task/activity.
- Accountability is assigned at the lowest level and implied at higher levels
- Accountability can not be delegated
- The individuals to be consulted prior to a final decision or action is taken.
- Two-way communication.
- The individuals that need to be informed after a decision or action is taken
RACI Tips and Tricks and Considerations
- Each vertical column should have only ONE Accountable.
- Too many A’s? – Probably a sign of confusion – no one will be sure who really had the task and each individual will probably have a different approach and/or expectation(s).
- Each vertical column should have one Responsible, but can have more in some situations of shared responsibility.
- With no R’s a gap occurs – Is the task being completed? Assign Responsibility.
- If a column has more than one R can we subdivide the task?
- With too many R’s an overlap can occur.
- Minimize the number of Consults – Make sure the consult is necessary and not just a ‘feel good’ contact.
- Too many I’s? Maybe some people only need to be informed if exceptional circumstances occur.
– Build the appropriate criteria into the process.
- No empty spaces in a row – Does this person need to be involved in every step? Try to reduce C’s and I’s First.
- Lot’s of R’s – The individual may have too much to do – can the activities be broken into small sections and split out to others?
- No A’s or R’s – Should this role be eliminated from this process? Has the process changed over time where they may not be needed? Try to eliminate.
- many A’s – Is this person a bottleneck? Can these tasks be shared or segregated?
- Completely empty row – Why was this function included? Are we missing including them when they should be? Can the function be correctly eliminated form the process?
Steven Bonacorsi is a Senior Master Black Belt instructor and coach. Steven Bonacorsi has trained hundreds of Master Black Belts, Black Belts, Green Belts, and Project Sponsors and Executive Leaders in Lean Six Sigma DMAIC and Design for Lean Six Sigma process improvement methodologies.
Bonacorsi Consulting, LLC.
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Lean Six Sigma Master Black Belt
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